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Karakteristik dan perbedaan kelainan refraksi pada anak usia sekolah dasar di Sekolah Dasar Cipta Dharma Denpasar februari 2014

Abstract

Kelainan refraksi merupakan salah satu penyebab utama gangguan penglihatan di dunia, dan penyebab kebutaan peringkat kedua yang bisa ditangani. Gangguan penglihatan akibat kelainan refraksi merupakan masalah kesehatan penting pada 12 tahun pertama kehidupan anak. WHO menekankan diperlukannya perhatian khusus penanganan kelainan refraksi, salah satunya pada anak–anak usia sekolah dasar. Berbagai studi di dunia menunjukkan perbedaan karakteristik kelainan refraksi memiliki pola menurut umur dan jenis kelamin. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu penelitian observasional deskriptif, dengan pendekatan studipotong lintang analitik (analytical cross sectional), yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kelainan refraksi pada anak–anak usia sekolah dasar. Data diambil melalui kuisioner dan pemeriksaan mata dasar di sekolah dasar (SD) Cipta Dharma Denpasar pada tanggal 25 Februari hingga 31 Februari tahun 2014. Subyek penelitian adalah seluruh anak – anak SD Cipta Dharma, usia 6–13 tahun yang hadir saat diadakan penelitian. Dari 1023 siswa SD Cipta Dharma kelas I hingga kelas VI, didapatkan kejadian gangguan penglihatan sebesar 36,3% yang didominasi oleh gangguan penglihatan ringan. Kejadian kelainan refraksi ditemukan sebesar 31,9%, dengan tipe kelainan yang terbanyak adalah hipermetropia (12,9%), disusul miopia (11,8%), dan astigmatisme 7,1%. Kejadian kelainan refraksi tidak dipengaruhi oleh jenis kelamin dan suku, namun terdapat tren dari segi usia. Miopia cenderung terjadi pada kelompok usia yang lebih tua atau kelas yang lebih tinggi (V dan VI), sedangkang hipermetropia dan astigmatisme cenderung didapatkan pada usia muda, Kelainan refraksi yang tidak terkoreksi di SD Cipta Dharma Denpasar didapatkan sebesar 23,8%.

Refractive errors is one of the most common causes of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Impaired vision due to refractive error is an important health problem in the first 12 years of a child's life. WHO emphasizes the need for special attention to handle refractive errors, one of them in elementary school-age children Various studies in the world show the characteristics of refractive disorders have a pattern according to age and gender. This study is a descriptive observational study, with analytical cross-sectional approach, which aims to determine characteristics of refractive errors in elementary school-age children. Data retrieved through questionnaires and basic ophthalmology examination at Cipta Dharma Denpasar primary school on February 25 to February 31, 2014. Subjects were all Cipta Dharma elementary school children, aged 6 - 13 years who present at the time of study. From 1023 students of Cipta Dharma primary school grade I to VI, the incidence of visual impairment was 36.3%, which was dominated by mild visual impairment. The incidence of refractive errors was 31.9%, which is hypermetropia (12.9%), followed by myopia (11.8%), and astigmatism 7.1%. The incidence of refractive errors is not affected by gender and ethnicity, but there is a trend in terms of age. Myopia tends to occur in older age groups or higher classes (V and VI), hypermetropia and astigmatism tend to be acquired at a young age. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors of Cipta Dharma Denpasar primary school was 23,8%.

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How to Cite

Lestari, K. D., Handayani, T. A., Pemayun, C. I. D., & Manuaba, I. B. P. (2019). Karakteristik dan perbedaan kelainan refraksi pada anak usia sekolah dasar di Sekolah Dasar Cipta Dharma Denpasar februari 2014. Medicina, 50(2). https://doi.org/10.15562/medicina.v50i2.224

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