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Profil pasien dengan pneumonia nosokomial di RSUP Prof. Dr. I G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar pada Tahun 2022

Abstract

Background: Nosocomial pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection which occurs after more than 48 hours since admission to the hospital without prior signs of infection. It is categorized into Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) and Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia (VAP). This study aims to describe the profile of patients with nosocomial pneumonia at Prof. Dr. I G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar General Hospital in 2022.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional approach with a total of 40 samples who met the inclusion criteria. The data comes from patient medical records at RSUP Prof. Dr. I G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar in 2022.

Results: The incidence of VAP was higher (55%) compared to HAP (45%). The majority of patients were aged 60 years and above (32.5%), the majority were male (65%), and dominated by unemployed patients (32.5%). The most common comorbidities were asthma (17.5%), COPD (12.5%), and lung cancer (10%). Clinical symptoms exhibited by patients include fever, shortness of breath, and cough with phlegm, with the majority having leukocytosis (53%). The most common causative agents were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the empirical antibiotic used being Ampicillin and the definitive being Gentamicin. Survival outcomes were higher in HAP (88.9%) and death outcomes were higher in VAP (63.6%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of VAP is higher than HAP. It predominantly occurs in the elderly aged 60 years and above, is more common in males, and among patients who are unemployed. The most common comorbidities are asthma, pneumonia, and lung cancer. Clinical symptoms of the patient were fever, shortness of breath, and cough with phlegm, with WBC results showing leukocytosis. The most common causative agents are Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with empirical antibiotic therapy of Ampicillin and definitive Gentamicin. Patients went home alive higher in HAP and died higher in VAP.

 

Latar Belakang: Pneumonia nosokomial merupakan infeksi saluran pernafasan bawah ≥ 48 jam setelah masuk rumah sakit tanpa tanda infeksi sebelumnya. Dibagi menjadi Hospital Acquired Pneumonia (HAP) dan Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia (VAP). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil pasien pneumonia nosokomial di RSUP Prof. Dr. I G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar Pada Tahun 2022.

Metode: Penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan cross-sectional menggunakan total sampel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi sebanyak 40 sampel. Data berasal dari rekam medis pasien di RSUP Prof. Dr. I G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar pada tahun 2022.

Hasil: Kejadian VAP lebih tinggi (55%) dibandingkan HAP (45%). Kelompok umur pasien terbanyak adalah ≥60 tahun (32.5%), lebih tinggi pada laki-laki (65%), dan didominasi pasien tidak bekerja (32.5%). Komorbid tersering adalah asma (17,5%), PPOK (12,5%), dan kanker paru (10%). Gejala klinis dapat berupa demam, sesak napas, dan batuk berdahak serta hasil WBC menunjukkan leukositosis (53%). Kuman penyebab tersering adalah Klebsiella pneumonia dan Pseudomonas aeruginosa dengan antibiotik empiris yang digunakan adalah Ampicillin dan definitif berupa Gentamicin. Luaran pulang hidup lebih tinggi pada HAP (88,9%) dan luaran meninggal lebih tinggi pada VAP (63,6%).

Kesimpulan: Prevalensi VAP lebih besar dibandingkan HAP. Paling banyak terjadi pada lansia ≥60 tahun, didominasi laki-laki dan pasien tidak bekerja. Komorbid terbanyak adalah asma, PPOK, dan kanker paru. Gejala klinis dari pasien adalah demam, sesak napas, dan batuk berdahak dengan hasil WBC menunjukkan leukositosis. Kuman penyebab terbanyak adalah Klebsiella pneumoniae dan Pseudomonas aeruginosa dengan terapi antibiotik empiris Ampicillin dan definitif berupa Gentamicin. Pasien pulang hidup lebih tinggi pada HAP dan meninggal lebih tinggi pada VAP.

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How to Cite

Satwikayani, A. E., Artana, I. G. B. ., Purnamasidhi, C. A. W. ., & Kumbara, C. I. Y. K. (2024). Profil pasien dengan pneumonia nosokomial di RSUP Prof. Dr. I G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar pada Tahun 2022. Medicina, 55(1), 20–25. https://doi.org/10.15562/medicina.v55i1.1283

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Ayu Evita Satwikayani
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I GN Bagus Artana
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Cokorda Agung Wahyu Purnamasidhi
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Cokorde Istri Yuliandari Krisnawardani Kumbara
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