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Gangguan psikotik akibat penggunaan ganja (cannabis): studi kasus

Abstract

Ketergantungan dan penyalahgunaan zat bukan merupakan masalah baru di Indonesia. Terjadi peningkatan penyalahgunaan Narkotika, Psikotropika dan Zat Adiktif lainnya (NAPZA) di Indonesia dari tahun ke tahun, terutama penggunaan ganja karena mudah didapat. Di Indonesia terdapat antara 2-3juta orang yang pernah menghisap ganja. Penggunaan ganja dapat menyebabkan penyakit fisik (gangguan pernafasan dan kardiovaskuler) maupun mental (gangguan psikotik). Penggunaan ganja secara teratur terkait dengan munculnya gejala psikotik seperti pemikiran tidak teratur (disorganized), halusinasi, dan delusi. Umumnya para pengguna menggunakan beberapa zat, tetapi pada kasus ini hanya menggunakan satu zat saja yaitu ganja. Pada laporan ini, kami menyampaikan kasus lelaki umur 30 tahun yang mengonsumsi ganja sejak usia 17 tahun didiagnosis dengan gangguan mental dan perilaku akibat penggunaan zat multipel dan penggunaan zat psikoaktif lainnya dengan sindrom ketergantungan (F19.2) dan episode depresi sedang dengan gejala somatik (F32.11). Pasien mengalami halusinasi visual dan auditorik. Pasien mendapat terapi clozapine 25 miligram tiap 12 jam intraoral. Kasus diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan ganja secara kontinu memicu terjadinya psikotik.

Dependence and substance abuse is not a new problem in Indonesia. There is an increase in the abuse of Narcotics, Psychotropic and other Addictive Substances (NAPZA) in Indonesia over the years, especially the use of cannabis because it is easy to obtain. Among 2-3 million people in Indonesia have smoked cannabis. The use of cannabis can cause physical illness (respiratory and cardiovascular disorders) as well as mental (psychotic disorders). Regular use of cannabis is associated with the emergence of psychotic symptoms such as disorganized thinking, hallucinations, and delusions. Generally users use some substance, but in this case only use one substance that is marijuana. In this report we present the case of 30-year-old man who consumed marijuana since the age of 17 years was diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders due to multiple substances use and other psychoactive substance use with addiction syndrome (F19.2) and episodes of severely depressed somatic symptoms (F32.11). The patient experienced visual and auditory hallucinations. Patients were given 25 milligrams of clozapine therapy every 12 hours intraoral. From this case can be concluded that the continuous use of cannabis trigger the occurrence of psychotic.

References

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How to Cite

Yustiana, A. V., & Alit Aryani, L. N. (2019). Gangguan psikotik akibat penggunaan ganja (cannabis): studi kasus. Medicina, 50(2). https://doi.org/10.15562/medicina.v50i2.123

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Anastasia Venny Yustiana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
Medicina Journal


Luh Nyoman Alit Aryani
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Pubmed
Medicina Journal