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Tinjauan pustaka: respon imunologi pada dermatitis kontak iritan

Abstract

Background: Dermatitis is an inflammation of the epidermis and dermis associated with physical or immunological provocation. About 80% of contact dermatitis is irritant contact dermatitis. According to the British Association of Dermatologists, 4% to 7% of dermatologists consult with contact dermatitis. Data in Indonesia shows that 97% of 389 cases were contact dermatitis and 66.3% of them were irritant contact dermatitis.

Methods: This literature review included 28 relevant literature from 2002 to 2019 regarding the immunological response to irritant contact dermatitis. Different data sources and methods of manual literature search were used to find articles related to literature review topics.

Results: Dermatitis presents as spongiosis histologically, there is impaired function of the skin barrier, leading to increased transepidermal water loss. Irritant Contact Dermatitis (DKI) is a skin response to the physical and toxic effects of various environmental exposures which will directly cause the release of inflammatory mediators, especially from epidermal and dermal cells. Keratinocytes play a major role in the production of immune mediators in DKI. Disruption of the skin barrier results in the release of pre-formed IL-1α. Activation of IL-1α is further thought to stimulate further production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and CXCL8 (IL-8) by the epidermal cells and surrounding skin.

Conclusion: Irritant contact dermatitis is a non-specific inflammatory dermatitis caused by activation of the innate immune system by the pro-inflammatory properties of chemicals.

 

Latar Belakang: Dermatitis merupakan peradangan pada epidermis dan dermis terkait dengan provokasi fisik atau imunologis. Sekitar 80% dermatitis kontak merupakan dermatitis kontak iritan. Menurut British Association of Dermatologists, 4% hingga 7% konsultasi dermatologis dengan dermatitis kontak. Data di Indonesia memperlihatkan bahwa 97% dari 389 kasus merupakan dermatitis kontak dan 66,3% diantaranya adalah dermatitis kontak iritan.

Metode: Tinjauan Pustaka ini melibatkan 28 literatur yang relevan dari tahun 2002 sampai 2019 mengenai respon imunologi pada dermatitis kontak iritan. Sumber data yang berbeda maupun metode dalam pencarian literatur secara manual dipergunakan untuk menemukan artikel yang berhubungan dengan topik tinjauan pustaka.

Hasil: Dermatitis muncul sebagai spongiosis secara histologis, terdapat gangguan fungsi barrier kulit, yang menyebabkan peningkatan kehilangan air transepidermal. Dermatitis Kontak Iritan (DKI) adalah suatu respon kulit terhadap efek fisik maupun toksik dari berbagai paparan lingkungan yang secara langsung akan menyebabkan pelepasan mediator peradangan terutama dari sel-sel epidermis dan dermis. Keratinosit memainkan peran utama dalam produksi mediator imun pada DKI. Gangguan pada barrier kulit menyebabkan pelepasan IL-1α. Aktivasi IL-1α selanjutnya dianggap merangsang produksi lebih lanjut sitokin dan kemokin proinflamatori seperti IL-1β, TNF- α, IL-6, dan CXCL8 (IL-8) oleh sel-sel epidermis dan kulit di sekitarnya.

Kesimpulan: Dermatitis kontak iritan adalah dermatitis inflamasi non-spesifik yang disebabkan oleh aktivasi sistem imun bawaan oleh sifat pro-inflamasi bahan kimia.

References

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How to Cite

Shanti Maheswari, L. M., Dewita Ganeswari, P. A., & Wardhana, M. (2021). Tinjauan pustaka: respon imunologi pada dermatitis kontak iritan. Medicina, 52(3), 133–139. https://doi.org/10.15562/medicina.v52i3.1079

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Luh Made Shanti Maheswari
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Putu Ayu Dewita Ganeswari
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Made Wardhana
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