Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Hubungan antara kejadian hiperemesis gravidarum dan dukungan psikososial dengan kejadian depresi pada ibu hamil di kota Denpasar, Bali

Abstract

Background: Depression in pregnant women in Bali is still getting very little attention. This study aimed to determine the proportion of depression based on socio-demographic characteristics and the condition of hyperemesis gravidarum among pregnant women who underwent regular examinations to the Maternal and Child Health polyclinic (KIA) at the Puskesmas in the City of Denpasar.

Method: This study applied cross sectional analytical method. A total of 120 pregnant women were involved in this study, which was selected by using cluster sampling technique based on the location of the Puskesmas representing the sub-districts in Denpasar. Interviews were conducted in August 2018, where depression status was screened using the Edinburgh Pre-Post-natal Depression Scale questionnaire (EPDS).  

Result: In this study it was found that the proportion of pregnant women experiencing hyperemesis was 74.2%, of which only 3.4% belonged to the category of severe hyperemesis. The proportion of depression in pregnant women included in this study was 27.5%. The greater proportion of depression events was found in the age group of 20 years or younger compared to the age group older than 20 years (55.6% versus 25.2%; p = 0.05); and in the group of pregnant women who have not / have not married. Based on the current hyperemesis condition, the proportion of depression is more prevalent in pregnant women who experience severe and moderate hyperemesis (33.3% and 27.8%) as compared to mild hyperemesis (24%), but the difference in this proportion is not significant (p = 0.884).  

Conclusion: The proportion of depression which was found in this study is quite high as compared to the prevalence of depression in other studies in the world, so further studies are needed for identifying the need for treatment and prevention.

 

Latar Belakang: Depresi pada ibu hamil di Bali masih sangat kurang mendapatkan perhatian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proporsi depresi berdasarkan karakteristik sosio-demografis dan kondisi hiperemesis gravidarum ibu hamil yang menjalani pemeriksaan rutin ke poliklinik Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak (KIA) di Puskesmas di wilayah Kota Denpasar.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analitik cross sectional. Sebanyak 120 orang ibu hamil terlibat dalam penelitian ini, yang dipilih dengan acak sederhana didasarkan atas letak puskesmas mewakili wilayah kecamatan di Denpasar. Wawancara dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus 2018, di mana status depresi diskrining dengan menggunakan kuesioner Edinburgh Pre-Post-natal Depresion Scale (EPDS). Data diuji secara univariate dan multivariate menggunakan software SPSS versi 21.

Hasil: Dalam penelitian ini ditemukan proporsi ibu hamil yang mengalami hiperemesis adalah sebesar 74,2%, di mana hanya 3,4% nya termasuk dalam kategori hyperemesis berat. Proporsi depresi pada wanita hamil yang menjadi sampel penelitian ini adalah sebesar 27,5%. Proporsi kejadian depresi yang lebih besar ditemukan pada kelompok umur 20 tahun ke bawah dibandingkan kelompok umur di atas 20 tahun (55,6% berbanding 25,2%; p=0,05); dan pada kelompok ibu hamil yang belum/tidak kawin. Berdasarkan derajat hiperemesis saat ini, proporsi depresi lebih banyak ditemukan pada ibu hamil yang mengalami hiperemesis berat dan sedang (33,3% dan 27,8%) dibandingkan dengan hiperemesis ringan (24%), namun perbedaan proporsi ini tidak signifikan (p=0,884).

Kesimpulan: Proporsi depresi yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini cukup tinggi dibandingkan dengan prevalensi depresi pada penelitian lain di dunia, sehingga diperlukan studi lebih lanjut untuk upaya penanggulangannya. 

References

  1. Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obs Gynecol [Internet]. 2004;103:698–709. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15051562
  2. O’Keane V, Marsh MS. Depression during pregnancy. BMJ [Internet]. 2007;334(7601):1003–5. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1867919&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
  3. Teixeira C, Figueiredo B, Conde A, Pacheco A, Costa R. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in women and men. J Affect Disord. 2009;119(1–3):142–8.
  4. Topalahmetoğlu Y, Altay MM, Akdağ Cırık D, Tohma YA, Çolak E, Çoşkun B, et al. Depression and anxiety disorder in hyperemesis gravidarum: A prospective case-control study. J Turkish Soc Obstet Gynecol [Internet]. 2017;214–9. Available from: http://cms.galenos.com.tr/Uploads/Article_16550/TJOG-14-4-En.pdf
  5. Bunevicius R, Kusminskas L, Bunevicius A, Nadisauskiene RJ, Jureniene K, Pop VJM. Psychosocial risk factors for depression during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(5):599–605.
  6. Masyuni PUS, Nata IWS, Aryani P. Gambaran Kejadian Depresi Pada Ibu Hamil Di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas 1 Negara, Kabupaten Jembrana. Denpasar; 2017.
  7. Field T. Prenatal Depression Risk factors, Developmental Effects and Intervention:A Review. Pregnancy Child Heal. 2017;67(3):558–69.
  8. Andrade C. Antidepressant Exposure During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism in the Offspring, 2: Do the New Studies Add Anything New? J Clin Psychiatry [Internet]. 2017;78(8):e1052–6. Available from: http://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/article/Pages/2017/v78n08/17f11916.aspx
  9. Kinser PA, Thacker LR, Lapato D, Wagner S, Roberson-Nay R, Jobe-Shields L, et al. Depressive Symptom Prevalence and Predictors in the First Half of Pregnancy. J Women’s Heal [Internet]. 2017;0(0):jwh.2017.6426. Available from: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jwh.2017.6426
  10. Bawahab J, Alahmadi J, Ibrahim A. Prevalence and determinants of antenatal depression among women attending primary health care centers in Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J [Internet]. 2017;38(12):1237–42. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29209674%0Ahttps://www.smj.org.sa/index.php/smj/article/view/smj.2017.12.21262
  11. Shakeel N, Eberhard-Gran M, Sletner L, Slinning K, Martinsen EW, Holme I, et al. A prospective cohort study of depression in pregnancy, prevalence and risk factors in a multi-ethnic population. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15(1):1–11.
  12. Rashid A, Mohd R. Poor social support as a risk factor for antenatal depressive symptoms among women attending public antennal clinics in Penang, Malaysia. Reprod Health. 2017;14(1):1–8.
  13. Poursharif B, Korst LM, Fejzo MS, MacGibbon KW, Romero R, Goodwin TM. The psychosocial burden of hyperemesis gravidarum. J Perinatol. 2008;28(3):176–81.
  14. Gravensteen IK, Jacobsen E-M, Sandset PM, Helgadottir LB, Rådestad I, Sandvik L, et al. Anxiety, depression and relationship satisfaction in the pregnancy following stillbirth and after the birth of a live-born baby: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth [Internet]. 2018;18(1):41. Available from: https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-018-1666-8
  15. Biratu A, Haile D. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated factors among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Reprod Health [Internet]. 2015;12(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-015-0092-x
  16. Yonkers KA, Wisner KL, Stewart DE, Oberlander TF, Dell DL, Stotland N, et al. The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;114(October 2009):703–13.
  17. Wolford E, Lahti M, Tuovinen S, Lahti J, Lipsanen J, Savolainen K, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in their 3- to 6-year-old children. PLoS One [Internet]. 2017;12(12):e0190248. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190248&type=printable%0Ahttp://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=emexb&NEWS=N&AN=619887414
  18. Zhou C, Zheng W, Yuan Q, Zhang B, Chen H, Wang W, et al. Associations between social capital and maternal depression: results from a follow-up study in China. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth [Internet]. 2018;18(1):45. Available from: https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-018-1673-9
  19. Maliszewska K, Freund MŚ, Bidzan M, Preis K. Screening for maternal postpartum depression and associations with personality traits and social support . A Polish follow-up study 4 weeks and 3 months after delivery. 2017;51(5):889–98.

How to Cite

Aryani, P., Komang Ayu Kartika Sari, Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana, I Nyoman Bayu Mahendra, & Setiawan, P. A. (2021). Hubungan antara kejadian hiperemesis gravidarum dan dukungan psikososial dengan kejadian depresi pada ibu hamil di kota Denpasar, Bali. Medicina, 52(3), 113–119. https://doi.org/10.15562/medicina.v52i3.1053

HTML
74

Total
68

Share

Search Panel

Putu Aryani
Google Scholar
Pubmed
Medicina Journal


Komang Ayu Kartika Sari
Google Scholar
Pubmed
Medicina Journal


Cokorda Bagus Jaya Lesmana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
Medicina Journal


I Nyoman Bayu Mahendra
Google Scholar
Pubmed
Medicina Journal


Putu Andrie Setiawan
Google Scholar
Pubmed
Medicina Journal